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Llandeilo Archæology & History

Extracts from Llandeilo Fawr - Heritage Audit by Paul Sambrook and Jenny Hall for Cambria Archaeology (March 2004)

Prehistory

[Note: The references beginning PRN are to entries which can be found in the Site Gazetteer

Prehistory

There is little recorded archaeology within the boundaries of Llandeilo Fawr town relating to the prehistoric periods. The little evidence that is recorded indicates that human communities have made use of the land around the modern town since at least the time of the first farmers, during the Neolithic period (4000BC-2200BC). A polished stone axe (PRN862), made of rhyolite, of probable Neolithic date was found at Dinefwr Castle in 1876, and was later donated to the National Museum of Wales by Lord Dynevor. A second axe (PRN908) thought to be of Neolithic date and made of polished chert, was found in 1913 in a field below the town known as Cae Crug Mawr, at the edge of the Tywi floodplain.

There is some possible evidence of human activity around Llandeilo during the Bronze Age period (2200BC-700BC) in the form of the mound which gives rise to the name of the above mentioned Cae Crug Mawr, which is thought to be a Bronze Age round barrow or burial mound (PRN903). Archaeological evidence for the activities of Bronze Age people in Wales is dominated by evidence of their burial sites, in the form of hilltop cairns and barrows, where the cremated remains of the dead were interred, usually in cremation urns. There are many such burial sites recorded in this part of Carmarthenshire, especially on the higher ground either side of the Tywi valley and on the Carmarthenshire Vans. Valley floor barrows are less common and therefore Crug Mawr is of some importance. A possible Bronze Age hammerhead (PRN905), made of quartzite stone, was found in a pool below Dinefwr Castle in 1918 and is now kept at Carmarthen Museum.

The Iron Age (700BC-AD70) is, surprisingly perhaps, as yet not represented in the archaeological record for Llandeilo, although the view northwards from the town is dominated by the impressive Iron Age hillfort of Garn Goch, positive proof of the presence of a well-settled Iron Age population in the district. It has been suggested that the medieval castle of Dinefwr is itself located on the site of an Iron Age hillfort (PRN880), but there is currently no archaeological evidence for such a site. Recent archaeological fieldwork undertaken by Cambria within Dinefwr Park has however identified the site of an apparent hillfort. Archaeological investigations are still ongoing with relation to this site and final confirmation of its location and character is waited. The period is noted as the age of Celtic tribes and warrior bands that made warfare a way of life, for whom such hillforts were important defensive strongholds.

However, it is important to remember that the chieftains and warriors were supported by a farming population that would have exploited the natural resources of the area thoroughly, with the bulk of population probably living in scattered farmsteads.

Roman

Recent discoveries have revolutionised our understanding of Llandeilo in Roman times. When a geophysical survey located the site of a Roman fort and vicus town in Dinefwr Park in 2003, the long held suspicion that Llandeilo had a Roman past was at last confirmed. Llandeilo's location had already marked out the town as a strong candidate for the location of a fort or fortlet. It is halfway between the Roman forts at Carmarthen and Llandovery and within a day's march of each, but also close to the known route of the Roman road along the Tywi valley and at a fording and bridging point on the Tywi.

There had been many past archaeological discoveries that had suggested a strong Roman presence in the area. These included coin hoards (PRN869 and PRN886) and single coin finds (PRN875), a 3rd century milestone bearing an inscription to the Emperor Tacitus (PRN872) and some Roman bronze needles found around 1875 (PRN910). Coin hoard PRN869 was found close to Llandyfeisant church and there has been an unsubstantiated tradition that the church itself was built on the foundations of a Roman building, possibly a villa or temple (PRN7367). There is currently little evidence for such a building, other than reported late-20 th century finds of tesserae (mosaic tiles), which may be Roman in date, within the area of the churchyard. There have also been recent finds of fragments of a pottery type that was commonly used in the region during the Roman period known as black-burnished are in a stream bed in Dinefwr Park (PRN32105). A few pieces of another characteristically Roman pottery type, Samian Ware, which was mass-produced in Gaul during Roman times were also picked up by archaeologists during the construction of the Llandeilo by-pass in the early 1990s (PRN47646). Since 2000, several more finds of Roman date have been made in the area of Home Farm and Cae William, including bronze fragments, 1 st century AD coins and an amphorae handle (PRNs 47647-50) that give some indication of the archaeological potential of the area.

The discovery of the fort site itself came in 2003 when a geophysical survey undertaken for the National Trust produced remarkable results. The outline of two large forts, one partly overlying the other (PRN47636 & PRN47637), were clearly visible on the geophysical scan. It is thought that the earliest fort (PRN47636) dates to the time of the Roman conquest of Wales, about AD70-AD74. This would perhaps have been abandoned for a time after the conquest, but a second, smaller fort was built on the same site shortly afterwards, perhaps to maintain the peace and help establish Roman rule.

The scan also shows Roman roads running northeast (PRN47638) and east (PRN47639) from the fort entrance, probably linking to the Tywi valley road to Llandovery and possibly to a bridging point below the modern town. Another road can be seen heading south-eastwards (PRN47640), possibly towards Llandyfeisant and perhaps a river crossing downstream of the modern bridge. A fourth road clearly heads north-westwards (PRN47641), presumably to link with the Tywi valley road to Carmarthen. A building can be seen on the geophysical survey alongside this road, which may prove to be a Roman bath house (PRN47643). It is located in a field known as Brick Field, where the finds of Samian Ware pottery were made in the 1990s. Perhaps the most tantalising image on the scan is the outline of what appears to be a small vicus town developing outside the northeastern gate of the second fort. This may have been the first town to grow at Llandeilo and although we do not know A its name or, at present, much about its character, its presence allows us to speculate that Llandeilo town can indeed claim 2000 years of history! If nothing else, the establishment of Llandeilo as a centre of Roman military and, possibly, a political and civil authority may have ultimately led to the appearance of an early Christian community. This may perhaps have been the foundation for the next glorious chapter in the history of the area, when the settlement that we now know as Llandeilo Fawr take shape in the centuries following the end of Roman rule.

Early Medieval

The early medieval period has long been known as the Dark Ages, in view of the loss of Roman influence during the 5 th century AD. In Wales the term the "Age of the Saints" is also sometimes used, reflecting the growth of the Christian church - which is undoubtedly a more appropriate term to be applied when discussing the history of Llandeilo Fawr.

The very name Llandeilo Fawr indicates the importance of the church and its early monastic settlement, known as a clas community (PRN912), traditionally held to have been founded by St. Teilo as early as the 6 th century AD. The clasau had a church or chapel as their focus, within a llan enclosure and many of these early ecclesiastical sites have remained in use until the present day as the sites of parish churches and chapelries. By the 8 th century Llandeilo Fawr was the centre of a bishopric and probably the mother church of a large area in what is now northeastern Carmarthenshire. The church would have been an important landowner and this tradition certainly continued into later medieval times.

Teilo was certainly one of the great figures of the early church in Wales and ranks along with saints such as Dewi and Padarn and his cult spread across much of southwest Wales. This is the reason why so many churches dedicated to Teilo can be found even today. Although the traditions are strong and exceptionally important in terms of explaining the historical development of the district, there is of course little physical evidence of the early church or the saint who is believed to have founded it.

Probably the most obvious feature that survives is the form of the churchyard itself (PRN912), which is still oval in shape, and typical of the llan enclosures of early medieval ecclesiastical sites in West Wales (despite having been split in two by a new road in the mid-19 th century). Two early medieval inscribed stones (a cross-head tone PRN890 and part of a cross-slab stone PRN891) are now kept in the parish church, but thought to have originally stood within the churchyard. These may provide a direct physical link with the community that worshipped at Llandeilo Fawr in the 9 th century AD. A third early Christian stone (PRN889), recorded by Edward Llwyd in 1697, bore a Latin inscription and was thought to have been 6 th century in date. Unfortunately this stone has long been lost, but Llwyd recorded that it bore the inscription IACET CVRCAGNVS -VRIVI FILIVS, or "Here lies Curcagnus, son of -urivus". It is thought that Curcagnus is an Irish Gaelic name, and the stone is therefore a strong reminder that in the centuries after the end of the Roman withdrawal from Wales, Irish kingdoms sprang up across southwest Wales and even as far east as Breconshire. The importance of Llandeilo Fawr as an ecclesiastical centre by the 7 th- 8 th century AD is clear and it is to that period that one of its great cultural treasures relates.

Although the Llandeilo Gospel Book (now known as the Lichfield Gospel Book) is no longer kept at Llandeilo, it was a possession of the ecclesiastical community of Llandeilo Fawr during the 8 th- 10 th centuries. This remarkably well preserved, decorative gospel book was however lost to Llandeilo, possibly removed during an English raid, about 1000 years ago, and has been kept at Lichfield Cathedral, Staffordshire ever since. A fascinating aspect of the Gospel Book is that it includes a number of entries in the page margins. These marginal entries, or marginalia , include entries relating to land deeds in the area, written at the end of the 8th century. They include references to lands as far apart as modern day Llanycrwys and Llandybie, as well as a copy of an earlier deed, possibly of 6 th century date, which records a land dispute, one of the witnesses to which is named as Teliau (Teilo). We can but speculate as to whether this Teilo was the saint himself, but this entry is of great importance as it is the earliest written piece of Welsh that survives.

It is possible that a secular settlement also existed near Llandeilo Fawr during the early medieval period. There has been speculation that Dinefwr Castle (PRN 882) stands on the site of an earlier, high status defensive site. In late mediaeval times Welsh tradition, echoed by authors such as Giraldus Cambrensis, identified Dinefwr, the capital of Deheubarth, as one of the three great royal centres of Wales, alongside Aberffraw in Gwynedd and Pengwern in Powys, with origins stretching far back into the pre-Norman era. Modern opinion is however that this medieval tradition was derived from bardic fervour rather than historical fact. No archaeological evidence exists to confirm that pre-Norman occupation occurred in the area of Dinefwr castle.

The question as to whether Llandeilo Fawr had sites of both ecclesiastical and secular importance cannot therefore be fully resolved in relation to the early medieval period.

When the centuries that immediately preceded, and then followed the Norman Conquest are considered, however, the division between church and secular authority will be seen to be of great importance.

Medieval

During medieval times, we have our first true detailed historic record of life and society in the Llandeilo area. There are many sources that gives an insight into the life of the secular lords of Dinefwr, who were engaged in almost two centuries of military struggle against Anglo-Norman invaders from the early 12 th century until their eventual defeat in the late 13 th century. The family of the Princes and Lords of Dinefwr included many of the great figures of our history. These include Rhys ap Gruffudd (The Lord Rhys) who stopped the Norman advance during the second half of the 12 th century , his mother Gwenllian who fell on the field of battle attacking Kidwelly Castle. Later, Sir Rhys ap Thomas came to prominence as one of the key supporters of Henry Tudor, and his family tradition held that he had personally slain Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. Known as "Father Rhys" at the early Tudor court, he is renowned for holding the last great tournament of medieval times, at his castle in Carew, Pembrokeshire.

Llandeilo Fawr and the commote of Llandeilo (Maenordeilo), at the heart of the territories of the early medieval monastic community at Llandeilo, had become possessions of the Lord Bishop of St Davids by medieval times. The Lord Rhys had granted the churches of Llandeilo and Llandyfeisant to the Premonstratensian Abbey of Talley in the 12 th century, but from the 13 th century Talley was very much a tenant to the Bishop of St Davids. In 1239 St Davids had won their claim of ownership to the church and lands of Llandeilo and the Abbot of Talley had to pay an annual rent to the Bishop for use of Llandeilo.

A fascinating insight into life in the area during the 14 th century is revealed in the Black Book of St Davids, which lists the duties of the tenants of the estates of the Lord Bishop of St Davids. Amongst these estates were the Borough of Llandeilo, the Patria or Country of Llandeilo and the Patria of Llandyfeisant.

What is clear from these sources is that medieval Llandeilo was not one settlement, under the authority of one ruler. Instead, there was a clear division between the lands of the Lord Bishop, which included the town of Llandeilo Fawr and its surrounding countryside, and the lands of Dinefwr, which included the borough town of Dinefwr and, by the 14 th century, a second borough town called Newton. In reality, the medieval history of Llandeilo is the tale of three towns, not one, and each is deserving of attention in its own right.

Medieval Llandeilo Fawr (PRN10557)

Llandeilo Fawr was given its borough charter by Edward 1 st in 1280, with the right to hold annual fairs and weekly markets. The town was a possession of the Lordship of St Davids and The Black Book of St Davids, a description of the estates of the Lord Bishop compiled in 1326, gives a rare insight into the life of the medieval town. It tells us that the burgesses of Llandeilo had certain rents and duties to pay to the Lord Bishop. These included the duty of carrying goods and leading the Lord's beasts when passing through their lands, as far as Llangadog and Llanegwad (which were also borough towns). A toll had to be paid on all corn grown on the Lord's land. For each brewing of beer, 4 gallons was to be given to the Lord Bishop. Burgesses had a duty to serve on the Hundred Court and also make use of the Lord's corn mill. They were also expected to guard prisoners arrested within the borough and escort them to Llanegwad, unless they were hung at Llandeilo. The Lord Bishop was also keen to promote the commercial life of the town and held an annual fair, for three days, to celebrate the Feast of St Barnabas (later known as the Barnaby Fair). Every Saturday was market day and the tolls from the market and fair went to the Lord.

This information is more than enough to show that Llandeilo in the 14 th century was a busy market town, although a small one. It is not known where the burgesses lived, but it is thought likely that the settlement was close to the parish church and churchyard. Possibly, the area between the modern Tywi bridge and the church, on and below Bridge Street, was the focus of the town at that time. Early 19 th century maps show that there were many small garden plots and enclosures in that area, which may have been echoes of the burgage plots of the medieval period. It is also thought that the fair and market were held in the area of Market Street, to the north of the churchyard, which was probably an open area in medieval times. One local place name probably recalls the medieval link between Talley Abbey and Llandeilo. Ysgubor yr Abad (Abbot's Barn) is a lane that runs towards the river on the east side of the town and in the 19 th century it was thought that a ruined building nearby was a barn that was once owned by Talley Abbey.

Medieval Dinefwr & Newton

Dinefwr

The exact site of the old town of Dinefwr is as yet unknown, although it is thought likely to have been located close to Dinefwr castle. It may be the location of the settlement named in 13 th century sources as Trefysgolheigion , where clerks and artisans in the service of the Princes of Deheubarth lived. In 1298, it is recorded as having 26 burgages, with a weekly market (PRN50261) and two annual fairs (PRN50259 and PRN50260) being held. It seems that Dinefwr was badly affected by the assault on the castle and borough by the forces of Owain Glyndwr in the summer of 1403, led by Glyndwr himself. Thereafter, Dinefwr fades from history.

Newton

The New Town at Dinefwr, which became known as Newton, began to form at the end of the 13 th century, close to old Dinefwr town. In 1302-3, 35 burgages appear to have been available for rent. Many of the inhabitants were Anglo-Norman immigrants, while the population of old Dinefwr appear to have been all Welsh.

Newton did not receive its borough charter until 1363, but by that time it had two annual fairs of its own (PRN50259 and PRN50262) and a weekly market (PRN50263). Like Dinefwr, Newton was damaged by the attack by Glyndwr's forces in 1403. It appears to have dwindled away by the early 16 th century. It is known that Rhys ap Gruffudd, the Lord of Dinefwr, had built a substantial new mansion for himself at Newton in 1531. A few years later, John Leland described the mansion at Newton, noting that all that remained of the town was "a long street, now ruinous." In the early 19 th century, the historian Richard Fenton visited Newton and recorded that fragments of the old town were turned up by the plough in what is now Dinefwr Park, but the location of the borough town of Newton is now completely forgotten.

There is no doubt that Llandeilo Fawr held a significant advantage over Dinefwr and Newton due to its location on the banks of the Tywi, convenient for the river crossing and trackways along the valley. This advantage may have been sufficient to ensure that Llandeilo Fawr itself continued as a market centre, perhaps enhanced by the stability offered by the interest of the Lordship of St Davids in nurturing the borough and its other estates. The decline of Dinefwr and Newton partly seem to have resulted from the fact that they were founded in an age when Dinefwr Castle was a centre of political and military control. As the centuries passed and the strategic value of the castle lessened, both boroughs appear to have lost their importance.

Post-Medieval

With settlement and commerce focused on Llandeilo Fawr alone by the 16th century, the history of the post-medieval period is somewhat less complicated, although there remain many gaps in our knowledge of the development of the town and the life of its inhabitants, especially in the centuries between 1500 and 1800. We have a much better understanding about the town's development from 1800-1900, however.

In 1858, William Davies, in Llandeilo Vawr and its Neighbourhood gave a

description of how the town appeared a century earlier, in the mid-1700s, based on an old painting. Unfortunately, the painting did not show the northern and eastern parts of the town and therefore Davies' description gives only a partial view of 18th century Llandeilo;

Bridge Street is represented as being composed of six or seven houses in a row, which are straw thatched. The bridge, which spans the Towy, has four narrow stone arches ... The Old Church stands with its ancient tower on the spot now occupied by the present edifice, and near to it stands the Poor-house, with one or two little cottages in Church Street. The only house upon the North-East side is Mount Pleasant… Myrtle Hill seems to have rested on the same spot as it now stands upon. In Abbey Terrace, the Old Abbey lies in ruins… We believe that it was a kind of repository in connection with the celebrated Abbey of Talley, where tithes such as corn, poultry etc of this part of the country were deposited. The designation of the street was commonly "Heol Sgubor Abart," which meant Heol Ysgubor'r Abad, or Abbots-Barn Street…

The town was described in less than glowing terms by a visitor at the end of the 18th century. In 1791, Mary Morgan complained about the miserable condition of Llandovery town, noting that Llandeilo was "much worse!"

I never saw a place that had a more deplorable appearance. The streets, if they may be called, are narrow, dirty, and half paved with stones with sharp ends upwards. The houses are built with a kind of stone; but it is so crumbling a nature, that they appear all to be falling into decay.

Ms Morgan did, however, have kinder words for the townspeople, who were;

…very decent in their manners, and in their outward semblance: they do not seem fit tenants for such wretched dwellings.

It is only in the early 19th century that good map evidence becomes available, showing the town in detail. By this period, the town does not seem to have grown much outside its medieval core, focused on the churchyard. This is clearly seen in a map of 1826 drawn up for the Derwydd estate, which shows that the extent of the town was confined to Bridge Street, George Hill, lower Carmarthen Street, upper Rhosmaen Street and Church Street. The parish tithe map of 1841 shows an almost identical picture of the town. An important addition to the town in the early 19 th century, in terms of civic buildings, was the construction of the Shire Hall (PRN8730) in Carmarthen Street in 1802, to serve as a corn market, with a courtroom above and offices, prison cells and an armoury to the rear. One site of interest shown on both the 1826 and 1841 maps is a small tollhouse on the northwestern approach to the town.

This was the site of the Walk Gate, dramatically destroyed by Rebecca Rioters in 1843, whilst a detachment of Dragoons (sent to protect local tollgates) sat, unaware, in their billets in the Cawdor Arms and George Hotel.

But Llandeilo was on the threshold of better days. The construction of the Market Provision Hall by the Derwydd Estate (PRN26654) in 1838, and the present stone bridge over the Tywi in 1848, in place of the stone and timber bridge mentioned by William Davies above, were symbols of a determination to invest in the future of the town. Another key development was the building of the National School (PRN8731) during the 1850s, at the behest of Lord Dinefwr, in place of an earlier charity school (PRN50254).

This process of expansion was greatly boosted by the arrival of the railway in 1856. The siting of the railway station to the northeast of the town gradually drew new development in that direction. By the 1870s, significant changes occurred with the development of New Road and Crescent Road, redefining the northern and eastern boundaries of the town. When William Samuel wrote his Llandeilo Present and Past in 1868, he describes New Road merely as "the new road which leads by a short cut to the market place." New Road is shown as a road connecting Rhosmaen Street and the top of Carmarthen Street as early as the 1826 Derwydd estate map, although no development seems to have occurred along its course before the 1850s or 1860s. Crescent Road is described by Samuel as an "as yet unopened road" indicating that it was only under development in 1868.

The 1st edition of the Ordnance Survey's 1:10560 map (Carmarthenshire Sheet XXXIII.SE), surveyed in 1884-5, shows that by the 1880s, not only were New Road and Crescent Road present, but a new expansion had occurred along what was called Railway Terrace (now the portion of Rhosmaen Street northeast of the New Road/Crescent Road crossroads). This new development included the celebrated South Wales Brewery (PRN9038).

Beyond the edge of the town, the Ordnance Survey map also shows a saw mill (PRN18850) and a tannery as well as the Railway Station. But even in 1891, there is no development along Carmarthen Street beyond the top of New Road, and the White Hart inn is some distance from the town, effectively in open countryside.

The 20th Century

The Ordnance Survey revised the map in 1905, and the new map shows that Alan Road, Latimer Road and Thomas Street had appeared, as well as new building along Railway Terrace, Station Road, Crescent Road and behind New Road (Greenfield Terrace). Arguably, it was during this period that Llandeilo entered its heyday as a market town, the commercial centre of a wide area of rural Carmarthenshire. By the early 20 th century, we see that a great number of shops serve the community, including the popular Market Provision Hall. There were numerous taverns, new commercial banks had opened, each of the main nonconformist denominations had built or rebuilt large chapels and a police station, school and post office served the townspeople. It is a remarkable piece of good fortune that this phase in the development of Llandeilo was recorded by the local photographer DC Harries and can still be viewed in the priceless collection of his photographs that are kept at the National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth.

The 20th century development of Llandeilo falls within the realms of the recollections of many of the present inhabitants of the town. Many will remember a town that was commercially strong enough to cater for the needs of its population until the last quarter of the century. The increase in private car ownership and the trend towards shopping in larger towns and cities such as Carmarthen and Swansea, has inevitably changed the commercial fortunes of Llandeilo, like many other country market towns.

One of the objectives of the Llandeilo Heritage Audit was to collect and record information pertaining to the 20 th century history of the town. In this respect the account of life in Llandeilo during this period, particularly the second half of the century, is reflected in this report and provides exceptionally interesting insights into aspects of the town's history. Much more detail has been included in the Site Gazetteer in part 6, below.

Several contributors have provided details of former businesses that existed in the town. These were often based in properties that are now private houses, for which there is little physical evidence. Church Street, for example, had several businesses during the 1930s, including an electrical and plumbing shop (PRN50296) and a cabinet-makers shop and workshop (PRN50300).

More obvious are the former shops in New Road, which included Sartor House (PRN50269), a tailor's that supplied livery to both the Dynevor and Cawdor estates.

Also in New Road was the Ammanford Co-operative Society (PRN50264), which in the 1950s became the first shop in Llandeilo to have open shelves and aisles. Nearby, the present auction rooms of Jones & Llewellyn were previously the Railway Tavern Stores (PRN50270), which had a Guinness bottling plant. After the Second World War it became a pickled onion factory (PRN50271) and later the Gwili Farmers Cooperative (PRN50272).

One important aspect of the town's 20 th century history, which appears to remain largely unrecorded, is the period of the Second World War. Recollections of a sign that survived into the 1950s, in the alleyway leading to the present Llandeilo Literary Institute in Rhosmaen Street, bearing the words "Public Air Raid Shelter" (PRN50265) invite further study. Likewise, information provided on the history of the British Army Military Hospital (PRN50282) based in Newton House, is deserving of attention. One former serviceman, posted to the area to man a searchlight battery, recalls that only a single rifle was available for the defence of the hospital. Later in the war, it became an American Army hospital, complete with a group of Nissen huts on the lawns outside the mansion. After D-day, the huts became a Prisoner of War camp (PRN50283) for German officers. The Americans also had camp (PRN50281) based at the old Dynevor Church Hall, with a field kitchen and large petrol dump in the fields where Dynevor Avenue now stands. Further away from the town, near the White Hart, the Women's Land Army had a camp (PRN50284), which was converted into temporary housing for homeless people after the war, as indeed were the Nissen huts outside Newton House - remembered by some local people as "Tin Town."

Perhaps the final comment should be reserved for one of the most interesting later 20th century developments in the town, which can easily be overlooked in an historical account. The land north and west of New Road has become the focus for new residential developments since the middle of the century. Typical of the civic projects of the 1960s, new council housing was accompanied by a public recreation area that survives to the present day, know as Le Conquet park (PRN50294). The park includes a small football pitch, a bowling green and clubhouse, tennis courts and a paddling pool. Adjacent is the town's ambulance station and fire station, with the police station across the road. The old Church Hall is also at the edge of the park, accompanied by the Scout Hut and St John's Ambulance Hut. Altogether, these combined to give Llandeilo a new civic heart in the late 20th century, far removed in character from earlier foci of settlement in this historic town, but much more attentive to the needs of the modern population.

Site Gazetteer

The above brief history of Llandeilo has been adapted from Section 5 ( Archaeology & History) of the Llandeilo Fawr Heritage Audit (Cambria Archaeology, Report No. 2004/26, Project Record No. 50045; March 2004, by Paul Sambrook & Jenny Hall). Section 6 of the full version of the Heritage Report includes the gazetteer of archaeological and historical sites recorded in the regional Sites and Monuments Record. This is preceded by two site indexes. The first is an index of sites arranged alphabetically, by name. The second is an index of sites arranged by archaeological period and accompanied by distribution maps, showing the location of sites. Section 6.8 contains CADW's brief description of sites of historical or archaeological interest in Llandeilo. CADW is the body responsible for conserving the built heritage of Wales and is the Welsh equivalent of English Heritage. Cadw means “to keep” in Welsh.